Unlike previous expeditions, Challenger left to explore the sea itself, the first scientific expedition of oceanographic exploration. On many… Challenger Expedition (1872-1876) Great Britain. Select a subject to preview related courses: In addition, the Challenger has inspired other types of scientific exploration. Today's understanding of the ocean is due to the field of oceanography. In the 19th century, people wondered the same thing about the depths of the ocean. It sparked public interest in science, and a century later would lend its name to the space shuttle Challenger as a tribute to the expedition that both told us so much about unknown places and showed us how scientific exploration can open doors to new and exciting discoveries. The Royal Navy – Exploring the World Since its founding in 1485, the Royal Navy’s major role has been that of a maritime fighting force; fighting wars, waging battles, protecting the Empire and British interests around the world. The fruit of the HMS Challenger’s voyage was the“Report of the Scientific Results of the Exploring Voyage of HMS Challenger during the years 1873-76”. The remaining material was to be returned to Sir CharlesWyville Thomson for distribution by the Treasury and the Trustees of theBritish Museum. The first of these expeditions sailed aboard HMS Challenger in 1872. The HMS Challenger didn't start out as a scientific vessel. Challenger Office. ), Scottish Canadian naturalist and one of the founders of oceanography, whose particular interests were ocean basins, deep-sea deposits, and coral-reef formation. The ocean’s dominant role over the atmosphere, land, ... between the voyage of HMS Challenger3 (1872–1876) and the modern data set of the Argo Programme4 (2004–2010). In 1872, HMS Challenger laid the groundwork for oceanographic research and academia, undertaking the first global marine research expedition. They also discovered what is now called the Challenger Deep, a deep part of the Pacific Ocean that's part of the Mariana Trench. study To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. To understand how the Challenger changed that, let's take a closer look at the expedition and its legacy and impact. Omissions? It also inspired other countries to pay attention to the oceans and launch their own oceanographic expeditions, which led to even more discoveries. Challenger was commanded by Captain George Nares with the British naturalist Sir John Murray leading the expedition. In this lesson, we'll look at the journey that set the stage for modern oceanography and deep sea exploration: the Challenger Expedition. As part of its epic voyage around the world HMS Challenger measured the variation of ocean temperature with depth at about 300 stations. On her 68,890-nautical-mile (127,580 km) journey circumnavigating the globe, [10] 492 deep sea soundings, 133 bottom dredges, 151 open water trawls and 263 serial water temperature observations were taken. A dredging system was set up to capture specimens of marine life, which would then be analyzed in a lab fitted with microscopes, dissection equipment, and thousands of alcohol-filled jars to preserve them. In the spirit of the HMS Challenger Expedition, a new round the world deep-sea expedition is underway. In fact, it started out as a British Navy ship with cannons and other equipment to go into battle on the high seas. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The HMS Challenger Expedition, the first modern oceanographic expedition, changed that by becoming one of the first scientific journeys to focus on deep sea exploration, or the scientific study of the ocean floor. The era of global-scale ocean observations began with the Challenger Expedition in 1872. The Challenger Expedition claims the title of the world's first totally scientific oceanographic expedition. They also discovered what is now called the Challenger Deep, a deep part of the Pacific Ocean that's part of the Mariana Trench. The ocean's dominant role over the atmosphere, land, or cryosphere comes from its high heat capacity and ability to remove heat from the sea surface by currents and mixing. The Challenger Expedition was a grand tour of the world covering 68,000 nautical miles (125,936 km) organized by the Royal Society in collaboration with the University of Edinburgh. 's' : ''}}. But, oceanographic expeditions were once almost unheard of. During Challenger's four years away from home, her crew and scientists founded the era of modern scientific study of the ocean and its creatures. However, the navy was also tasked with carrying out explorations and surveys around the world. A century and a half later, the new program is timed to coincide with the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development that runs from 2021-2030. From 1872 to 1876, the Challenger circumnavigated the Earth, traveling a total of almost 70,000 nautical miles. During the Lewis and Clark Expedition, Merewether Lewis recorded his discoveries though his own scientific illustrations. The HMS Challenger didn't start out as a scientific vessel. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? © copyright 2003-2021 Study.com. The expedition was named after the mother vessel, HMS Challenger. Captains: George … HMS Challenger, … Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. On the four-year journey, the scientists on board learned so much that it took almost 30,000 pages and 25 years for all of the scientific discoveries to be published! Create your account, Already registered? Except for the poles, few places remained to be conquered by man. Create an account to start this course today. HMS Challenger Expedition gave us exceptional baseline data for 21st century ocean warming evaluation. Charles Thomson was the leader of a large scientific team. The longest interval over which instrumental records of subsurface global-scale temperature can be compared is the 135 years between the voyage of HMS Challenger(3) (1872-1876) and the modern data set of the Argo Programme(4) … But, the Royal Society, a British organization dedicated to science and scientific discovery, obtained the Challenger from the British Navy. Scientists have named this initiative Challenger 150 to mark the 150th anniversary of the Challenger Expedition, the first modern oceanographic expedition that departed from Plymouth, U.K., in 1872. In fact, it started out as a British Navy ship with cannons and other equipment to go into battle on the high seas. first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. https://www.britannica.com/event/Challenger-Expedition, Nares.net - Biography of Sir George Strong Nares, Dive and Discover - Challenger Expedition, University of Kansas - Challenger Expedition, The Canadain Encyclopedia - Challenger Expedition, State University of New York - Challenger Expedition. The college hopes to rekindle the spirit of the HMS Challenger. Alternative: Reports Challenger Expedition : Summary Alternative: Summary of the scientific results By. Did you know… We have over 220 college HMS Challenger, a wooden corvette of 2,306 tons, was commanded by Captain (later Sir) George Strong Nares, while Sir C. Wyville Thomson supervised the scientific staff. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Scientists were required to sendall species of which there were more than threerepresented as well as all unique specimens to the British Museum (now the Natural History Museum) fortheir collections. They retrofitted the Challenger to be a traveling science lab, removing cannons and adding in scientific equipment and space for scientists to live and study. flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? 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